Health information

Resources for patients and their families about conditions, treatments and procedures.

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open repair surgery

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening swelling in the aorta (the main artery in the body). It can be repaired with surgery to replace the weak section of the aorta with a piece of manmade tubing (a graft).

Abdominal ultrasound scan

An abdominal ultrasound scan is a widely used diagnostic test to examine the abdominal organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen and aorta) and soft tissues of the body.

Abscess treatment

The procedure to treat an abscess by draining it and removing the infected tissue with a local or general anaesthetic.

Achilles strapping for Achilles tendon pain

Achilles strapping is used for managing Achilles tendon pain. It restricts movement of the tendon, and reduces discomfort when you are on your feet for long periods of time. This can make the healing process quicker. 

Achilles tendinopathy

Managing pain caused by Achilles tendinopathy and exercises to strengthen the tendon that connects the back of the lower part of your leg muscles to the heel bone.

Acupuncture in Dimbleby Cancer Care

Our 3 acupuncture clinics help with the side effects of cancer and its treatments, such as hot flushes, pain, feeling sick, sleep problems, anxiety, dry mouth and nerve damage.

Acute pancreatitis

How we diagnose and treat mild or severe cases of acute pancreatitis. This is when the pancreas becomes inflamed or swollen over a short time. Sometimes, your treatment might include surgery to remove the gallbladder (a small pouch under the liver).

Adult hearing implant skin care

Information about caring for your skin if you have an adult hearing implant. This explains the routine that we recommend for checking your skin regularly and carefully.


Advice after receiving your dilation eye drops

Information for after you have had a a dilated-eye exam, where eye drops are used to enlarge (dilate) your pupils.  

AMBER care bundle when recovery is uncertain

How the AMBER care bundle helps to improve the quality of care for people who are seriously unwell and may not get better.

Amitriptyline for facial pain

Amitriptyline is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.


An anaesthetic stops you from feeling pain during an operation, procedure or treatment. Find out about local, regional and general anaesthetics.

Anal fissure treatment

Overview of treatment for anal fissures, which are small cracks or tears in the skin of your anus (where poo leaves your bottom). 

Anal fistula treatment

An anal fistula is a tunnel that develops between the bowel and the skin of the anus (bottom). It is treated with surgery.

Antenatal hand expressing from 37 weeks

We might advise you to hand express colostrum while you are still pregnant if your baby has a medical condition or if you have diabetes, and to help you develop breastfeeding skills that will benefit you and your baby.

Antenatal hypertension (high blood pressure in pregnancy)

Our clinic can support you if you have or are at risk of antenatal hypertension, and give advice about how it can affect your pregnancy (including the risk of preclampsia), treatment, checking your blood pressure at home, and planning your birth. 

Antibody-incompatible kidney transplant from a deceased donor

Information about antibody-incompatible kidney transplants from a deceased donor, which is different from a routine transplant. 

Aorto-bifemoral and axillo-bifemoral bypass

When the main arteries in your stomach are significantly narrowed, this affects the blood supply to your legs. An aorto-bifemoral and an axillo-bifemoral bypass are 2 operations that can treat this condition.

Appendicectomy (surgery to remove the appendix)

Appendicectomy is surgery to treat appendicitis, when your appendix has become inflamed, infected or ruptured.

Athlete's foot

Athlete’s foot is a very common fungal infection that affects the feet. You can get athlete’s foot from swimming pools, gym changing rooms and showers, some shoes and socks. It's more likely if you have sweaty feet. Find out more about the symptoms and treatment for athlete's foot.

Atypical endometrial hyperplasia

Atypical endometrial hyperplasia is a condition where the womb lining called the endometrium gets thicker and the cells are not normal. Find out about the causes and symptoms of the condition, and how it can be diagnosed and treated.

Awake breast surgery without a general anaesthetic

Information about having awake breast surgery without a general anaesthetic to make you sleep during the operation. This covers the benefits, risks, how we give you the local anaesthetic injections and what to expect afterwards.

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Biobanking tissue for research

How we collect extra samples of tissue and bodily fluids for research to diagnose, prevent and treat conditions. 

Biologic and advanced therapies for autoimmune conditions

What to expect if you take a biologic medicine or advanced therapy for an autoimmune or inflammatory condition. This includes information on screening tests, having your medicine delivered and how to take it.

Biopsy in the interventional radiology department

A biopsy is when we take a small sample of body tissue and send it to be tested in a laboratory. In the interventional radiology (IR) department, we do a biopsy using guidance from an ultrasound or CT scan.


Blepharitis is an inflammatory condition of the eyelids. It can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older people.


Blepharoplasty is a surgical procedure to remove some of the excess skin from your eyelids.

Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm

Information about the different treatments for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 

Blood clots and lowering your risk

You are at increased risk of blood clots while in hospital and for 90 days after you leave. It's important to know the symptoms and follow our instructions to lower your risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Bone biopsy in the interventional radiology department

A bone biopsy is a procedure done under X-ray or CT guidance. We remove a small sample of bone and send it to be tested in a laboratory.

Bone grafting for dental implants

You might need bone graft surgery before having dental implants. This increases the amount of bone available if you do not have enough bone in your jaw for us to put in the implants.

Bone scan

Information about having a bone scan to see how your bones are working, and diagnose some conditions, including inflammation, cancer, or fractures.

Borderline ovarian tumours

There are two types of borderline tumours. They are called serous (tumour is covered in serum) or mucinous (tumour is covered in mucus). They are rare and are not cancer.

Botulinum toxin for squints

Botulinum toxin (BTXA) is a chemical derived from bacteria (Clostridium botulinum). It is injected into the muscles around the eye to weaken them and change the eye position. 

Bowel cancer risk assessment

Risk assessment service to review personal and family history for an inherited tendency of developing bowel cancer. 

Bowel incontinence

Bowel incontinence (or faecal incontinence), is when you have difficulties having a poo and controlling your bowel movements. Read more about the causes, symptoms and treatment.

Breast cancer risk assessment

Risk assessment service to review personal and family history for an inherited tendency of developing breast cancer. 

Breast screening (mammogram)

Breast screening (a mammogram) involves having specialised X-ray pictures taken of each breast. Information about the benefits and risks of the procedure, and what to expect.

Breast sentinel lymph node injections

Breast sentinel lymph node injections are done before you have surgery to remove one or more lymph nodes to test for cancer cells. They help surgeons identify which lymph nodes should be removed.

Breast ultrasound scan

A breast ultrasound scan produces pictures of the inside of the breast. Information about the benefits and risks of the procedure, and what to expect.


Information about bunions, including symptoms, and treatment options. 

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Cancer care and support

Personalised cancer care is designed to meet your needs and focus on what matters to you, giving you the care and support you need to live as well as possible during and after treatment.

Carbamazepine for facial pain

Carbamazepine is a medicine that can be used to treat chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

Cardiac (heart) MRI

Cardiac (heart) MRI scans use strong magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce detailed pictures of inside your body.  

Cardiac ablation for an irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation)

Information about an ablation procedure for people using cardiac services at Harefield, Royal Brompton or St Thomas' Hospital. Cardiac ablation a procedure to treat an irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation).

Caring for your feet and toenails

This information explains how you can look after your feet and toenails. It contains information on checking your feet, cleaning them and how to cut your toenails. 

Carotid endarterectomy

A carotid endarterectomy is the surgical removal of plaque that can build up and block your arteries.

Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery replaces your cloudy lens with an artificial lens. This procedure takes about 30 minutes and is done under local anaesthetic.

Catheter angiogram to check blood vessels

A catheter angiogram is a high-quality picture of your arteries. We put a plastic tube (catheter) into an artery, inject a substance called a contrast agent and take X-ray pictures.

Cervical cancer staging with a cystoscopy

We use a cystoscopy under general anaesthetic to check if cervical cancer has spread to other part of the body. This is called staging.  

Chemoprevention for increased risk of breast cancer

Chemoprevention is for people who have been assessed by a family history or genetics specialist and have a confirmed increased risk of developing breast cancer than in the general population.

Choosing athletic footwear

Information about choosing the correct athletic footwear to reduce pain, and making sure your footwear has enough room for your insoles.  

Choosing shoes to reduce foot pain

Choosing suitable shoes to reduce foot pain and accommodate insoles.

Clostridioides difficile infection

Preventing C. diff (clostridioides difficile) infections in our hospitals using good hygiene.

Cochlear implant

Videos about the assessment process for a cochlear implant at St Thomas' hearing implant centre.

Coeliac plexus block to treat pain

A coeliac plexus block is an injection of local anaesthetic to interrupt signals of abdominal pain. It can sometimes be used to treat cancer-related pain.

Cold coagulation - heat treatment

We use a procedure called cold coagulation to treat abnormal cells on the neck of the womb (cervix). A heated probe destroys the abnormal cells.

Collecting blood for a blood spot card

How to collect blood using a lancing device and blood spot card if you are being treated in our inherited metabolic diseases clinics.

Colonic transit study

This test looks at how your large bowel (colon) is working using X-rays after swallowing some capsules. It can be used to diagnose conditions. 


A colonoscopy is a routine test to examine the lining of your bowel, also called the large intestine or colon.

Colonoscopy diet advice and bowel preparation

Instructions to prepare for your colonoscopy, including medicines, diet and bowel preparation from 4 days before your appointment.

Colorectal cancer follow-up after treatment

Personalised follow-up (sometimes called PFU) is how we support you after cancer treatment. Our aim is to give you the care and support that are important to you.

Contrast injection leak (extravasation)

This information explains what happens, and what you should do, if the contrast dye injection you had for an MRI or CT scan leaks under your skin. This is called extravasation.

Corneal abrasion

A corneal abrasion is a small scratch or graze to the cornea. Diagnosis is confirmed by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and malnutrition

Signs of malnutrition and how to make sure you get the nutrients you need, including what you can do if you're at higher risk.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) recovery

A guide to help you recover from coronavirus (COVID-19) and manage the symptoms that affect you.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) treatment and protection for people at high risk

Information for people at highest risk of getting seriously ill from coronavirus (COVID-19) about the treatment available. Guidance about autumn boosters for people who are eligible.

Crossover bypass grafts

Femoro-femeral and ilio-femoral bypass grafts are crossover bypass grafts that are used to improve blood flow to your legs.

Cryotherapy to treat chronic pain

Cryotherapy (cold) as a treatment for chronic pain.

CT enema scan

Information about have a CT enema scan and the preparation needed to make sure that your bowel is empty for a clear scan.

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Day case electroencephalogram (EEG)

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to record the electrical activity in the brain. Recording this activity can give us useful information about how your brain is working. EEG tests help to diagnose conditions that affect the brain.

Delirium (sudden confusion)

Delirium can be treated at hospital or managed at home. This condition can be frightening for the person and their loved ones. It's important to know the signs and understand what can help.


Information and advice about dementia and some of the symptoms you, or others, might notice. A proper diagnosis is important to help you, your carer, and your loved ones prepare for the future.

Dental cone beam CT scan (CBCT)

How to prepare for a dental cone beam CT scan of your jaw and teeth, including the benefits and what to expect.

Dental day surgery under general anaesthetic

How to prepare for dental day surgery under general anaesthetic and understanding what happens afterwards.

Dental implants

Dental implants are long-lasting artificial replacements for your tooth roots to help support dentures, crowns (caps) or bridges. 

Dental surgery and recovery

Dental surgery can cause side effects like pain, bleeding and swelling. You can avoid an infection by looking after your mouth after surgery. 


Information about how to look after dentures (false teeth) and the rest of your mouth. Dentures fit over your gums to replace missing teeth. You need to look after dentures carefully and clean them regularly.

Diabetes and eating well with a small appetite

Information for people with diabetes who have a small appetite. This covers eating a well-balanced diet that is high in energy (calories) and protein, and helps to keep your blood sugar levels stable.

Diabetes and healthy eating for reactive hypoglycaemia

Healthy eating guidance to help prevent and manage the condition reactive hypoglycaemia. This is when you have a low blood sugar level about 2 to 5 hours after eating.

Diabetes and pregnancy

Information if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and are pregnant or planning to get pregnant. This explains your healthcare during pregnancy and how you and your baby can stay healthy.

Diabetes and snacks low in carbohydrate

Information for people with diabetes about snacks low in carbohydrate. These can help if you are trying to keep your blood sugar levels stable or within a target range, but feel hungry between meals.

Diabetes care in hospital

This information explains the care that you can expect for your diabetes while you are in hospital.

Diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes)

Information about being tested for high blood sugar during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). The screening test is called an oral glucose tolerance test.

Diabetes medicines: GLP-1 agonists

How medicines called glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists help you to manage type 2 diabetes, together with healthy lifestyle changes.

Diabetes treatment and the safe use of insulin

If you take insulin to manage your diabetes, it is important to use it safely. You need to have the right insulin, in the right dose (amount), in the right way, at the right time. You also need to store insulin and dispose of used needles safely.

Diabetic eye screening drops

Information for anybody who has diabetic eye screening using Tropicamide 1% eye drops. It is important to know the possible side effects until your sight returns to normal.

Diabetic eye screening in pregnancy

Who needs diabetic eye screening in pregnancy, how often, what happens during the test and possible results.

Diet and chronic kidney disease

Guidance on how to eat a healthy, balanced diet that is low in salt if you have chronic kidney disease.

Discharge medicines service

Our discharge medicines service is a free service when you leave hospital. It puts you in touch with your community pharmacist. They talk to you about your medicines and help you to feel confident about taking them at home.

DMSA scan

A DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) scan checks how well your kidneys are working. It can be used to see if there are any signs of scarring to the kidneys.

Dorsal root ganglion blocks to treat pain

Information about injections for sciatic leg or arm pain, when other treatments have not helped. Usually given to the lower back, they reduce some of the pain signals from your limbs.

Draining blocked bile ducts

Percutaneous biliary drainage is a minimally invasive procedure through the skin to drain blocked bile ducts. These tubes carry a liquid called bile from the liver to the small bowel, where it helps your body to digest fat.

Dry eye syndrome

Dry eye syndrome (also called keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a condition that occurs when there is not enough aqueous (the watery part of tears).

Duloxetine for facial pain

Duloxetine is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

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Eating safely if you have neutropenia

Guidance on eating safely if you are having cancer treatment and may get neutropenia. This is when you have a low number of white blood cells and are more likely to get an infection.


ECV for turning your breech baby

An external cephalic version (ECV) to turn a baby from a breech to a head-down position in pregnancy, to reduce complications in birth.


Electrochemotherapy is a treatment for cancer and some other health conditions. It combines chemotherapy and a small electrical current. Your healthcare team may call it ECT.

Endoscopic facet joint radiofrequency denervation

The facet joints might become painful due to normal wear and tear (degenerative change), stress, or injury.

Endoscopic full thickness resection in the GI tract

An endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is a procedure to remove any lesions (abnormal or damaged cells), polyps (small growths) and specific tumours in the GI tract. 

Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early cancers of the food pipe or stomach

An endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a procedure to remove pre-cancerous cells, or small areas of cancer in the food pipe (oesophagus) or tummy, without the need for major surgery.  

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) lets us examine the lining of the food pipe (oesophagus), stomach and small intestine (duodenum) and the organs that surround them. 

Endovascular aneurysm repair - EVAR

An aneurysm happens when the wall of the aorta weakens, and the aorta stretches like a balloon. An endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is keyhole surgery to repair an aneurysm.

Entecavir to prevent hepatitis B returning

People who have had HBV virus  can be given entecavir medicine to stop the virus returning.  

Entonox (gas and air) for pain relief in the endoscopy unit

Entonox is a mixture of gas and air. You can breathe in Entonox to help with pain and anxiety during some bowel procedures in the endoscopy unit.

Epidural injections for arm or leg pain

Some ongoing nerve pain can be treated with injections into the area surrounding the spinal cord, called the epidural space.

Epidurolysis to treat pain

Epidurolysis injections, that include steroids, can be used to treat chronic (ongoing) nerve pain. These are a day-case procedure, which means you will not have to stay overnight in hospital.

ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography)

An ERCP is used to diagnose and treat problems with the biliary system. Find out more about what an ERCP is and why it is done. 

Exchange blood transfusion

Information on an exchange blood transfusion (EBT), a treatment used for sickle cell disease. 

Exercise and keeping active as an older adult

Guidance for older adults on why it is important to keep active, how much exercise to do, staying motivated and finding local classes.

Expressing your breast milk

How to express breastmilk for your baby who is premature or sick using your hand or a pump.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a temporary life support system for people whose lungs have stopped working properly.

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis

ESWT is a procedure where shockwaves are passed through the skin to the injured part of the body using a special device.  They are audible, low energy sound waves, which work by increasing blood flow to the injured area.

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for refractory greater trochanteric pain syndrome

ESWT is a procedure where shockwaves are passed through the skin to the injured part of the body using a special device.  They are audible, low energy sound waves, which work by increasing blood flow to the injured area.

Eye injections

Information about having injections in your eye as part of the treatment for your condition. 

Eyelid malposition correction surgery

Information about eyelid malposition correction surgery, including causes of eyelid malposition. 

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Facet joint injections for treating pain

The vertebrae (bones that make up your spine) are linked on each side at the back, by facet joints. The facet stabilises the spine, while allowing movement. These joints can become painful due to 'wear and tear' (degenerative change) or injury. Pain is felt around the facet joints and can spread.

Facet joint medial branch blocks for diagnosing pain

Facet joint medial branch blocks can be used to help locate the source of your pain.

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)

FMT (also called stool transplantation) can treat diarrhoea caused by a type of bacteria called clostridium difficile (C diff) and symptoms caused by ulcerative colitis.


Information for people who have had a fall or are worried about falling, and their family members or carers. This covers why you might fall, how to prevent falls and how to get support.

Fasciotomy - surgery for compartment syndrome

A fasciotomy is a procedure to treat compartment syndrome. If it is not treated, it can restrict blood flow to the muscles and nerves within compartments. This can lead to loss of sensation in the skin, and loss of movement of the affected arm or leg (limb). 

Femoral bypass surgery

The femoral artery runs down each of your legs, from your groin to your thigh. You may need femoral bypass surgery if this artery is blocked.

Femoral endarterectomy

Surgery to treat atherosclerosis in the legs (peripheral arterial disease).

Fertility preservation for male patients

How cancer treatments might affect your fertility, accessing fertility preservation treatment and legal information about storing eggs, embryos and sperm.

Fertility preservation for trans men and non-binary people

Fertility preservation treatment options for trans men and non-binary people to freeze and store reproductive cells before gender affirming surgery (GAS), for use in the future. 

Fertility preservation for trans women and non-binary people

Fertility preservation treatment options for trans women and non-binary people to freeze and store reproductive cells before gender affirming surgery (GAS), for use in the future. 

Fibroid embolisation

Fibroids are non-cancerous growths in the wall of the womb. Sometimes, they become very large. Fibroid embolisation is a procedure to block the arteries that supply blood to the fibroids and make them shrink.

Fibroscan to check for liver inflammation

What to expect when you have a fibroscan to measure inflammation in your liver.

Fistula thrombectomy

A fistula thrombectomy is a procedure to remove a blood clot (thrombus) from inside a fistula. We join an artery and a vein together to make a fistula if you need dialysis treatment for chronic kidney disease.


Fistuloplasty to unblock an arteriovenous fistula

A fistuloplasty is a procedure to unblock an arteriovenous (AV) fistula. An AV fistula is when we connect an artery with a vein to access your bloodstream if you have dialysis for chronic kidney disease.

Fit note

How to get a fit note from your hospital doctor as an inpatient or outpatient.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy

A flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure to look at your large bowel (colon). It uses a thin, flexible tube called an endoscope. This examination helps us to diagnose your symptoms, or check the condition of your bowel, or take samples (biopsies) and remove polyps if needed. 

Follow-up after cardiac ablation for an irregular heart rhythm

Information for people using cardiac services at Harefield, Royal Brompton or St Thomas' Hospital. This explains about your follow-up care after a cardiac ablation procedure to treat an irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation).

Follow-up on watchful waiting for prostate cancer

Information about your follow-up care on watchful waiting after a prostate cancer diagnosis. This is a way of monitoring prostate cancer that is not causing any symptoms or problems.

Foot insoles

Insoles are shoe inserts that change the way your feet work. There are many types of insoles, but generally they work by supporting and cushioning the foot, or by changing the way you walk. 

Forceps and ventouse birth aftercare

Assisted birth with a ventouse suction cup or forceps can be used when we have concerns about your baby's condition, or because you need help in the final stages of labour

Fungal nail infections

Fungal nail infections usually affect toenails, but you can get them on your fingernails too. Symptoms can include the nail being soft, crumbly, discoloured or thicker than usual. Find out how to treat a fungal nail infection.

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Gabapentin for facial pain

Gabapentin is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

Gadolinium contrast injection

This information is about how Gadolinium (Dotarem) is used as a contrast agent when having an MRI scan. It makes the images clearer and helps with diagnosis. 

Gallbladder removal surgery (cholecystectomy)

Surgery to remove your gallbladder (a small sac below your liver) is called a cholecystectomy. You might need this surgery if you have small stones called gallstones that cause pain or complications.

Gastroschisis in a developing baby

Gastroschisis is when your baby gets a hole in the wall of their tummy (abdominal wall) while developing inside the womb. This is likely to be diagnosed during a routine ultrasound scan in pregnancy.



A gastroscopy is when we examine the upper part of your digestive system to diagnose or monitor conditions.

Genetic conditions and insurance

If you have had diagnostic genetic or predictive tests for a condition inherited from your family, you may need to disclose this information when taking out new insurance.

Germline testing for prostate cancer patients

Testing to discover if your prostate cancer is inherited, and if germline genetic testing is available for you and your family.

Getting help with symptoms after you stop cancer treatment

Information on getting help with symptoms after your cancer treatment has been stopped. This covers who to contact for support, when to get urgent help and how to get help with non-urgent symptoms.


GFR test

A GFR test measures your overall kidney function. The results of this test give more information about your condition, and can help to plan your treatment. GFR tests are done in our nuclear medicine department.

Glaucoma - being a glaucoma suspect

If you have been diagnosed as a 'glaucoma suspect' patient, this means you do not definitely have glaucoma, but you have some features that might indicate you are at risk of developing it. 

Glued wounds

Instructions for looking after a wound that has been glued. 

Gluteal strengthening

Gluteal strengthening is when you do exercises to make the muscles in your bottom (gluteal muscles) stronger. These muscles are important for posture, movement and balance.

Grazax hay fever treatment

We might recommend Grazax tablets if you are severely allergic to grass pollen. You need to start treatment before the grass pollen season.

Gynaecological cancer treatment follow-up

What to expect after treatment for gynaecological cancer, including clinic appointments and support from cancer clinical nurse specialists. 

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HALO radiofrequency ablation

HALO radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a treatment that uses radiowaves to destroy abnormal area of cells (dysplasia) in the lining of your food pipe (oesophagus). 

Harrison wing stable patient pathway

If you have HIV and your condition is stable, you can have fewer appointments each year for tests and reviewing your medicine. This is called the stable patient pathway. It means that you can spend less time travelling and at the hospital.  

Having an arteriovenous fistula formed

An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of vascular access. It’s a connection that is made by joining a vein onto an artery. An AVF makes it possible for dialysis nurses to repeatedly insert the needles needed for haemodialysis treatment.

Head and neck ultrasound scan

Head and neck ultrasounds are useful to help diagnose conditions, or create treatment plans for patients. They take place in our dental scanning department.

Head injury

Symptoms to look out for if someone has had a head injury and information about recovering.

Healthy eating for gallstones

Information about what diet is suitable if you have gallstones. This covers the symptoms of gallstones, the treatment available and how to have a healthy, balanced diet.

Hearing aids - dangers from batteries

Hearing aid batteries can be dangerous to young children and vulnerable people. This information has advice on storage and what to do in an emergency.   

Heart surgery and how to prepare

We explain the different types of heart surgery and their risks and possible complications. We also give advice about what you can do to prepare while you wait for your surgery.

Heart surgery and recovery

Advice on how to manage pain and side effects, and returning to normal activities. Information about our cardiac rehabilitation programme to help you recover.

Heart surgery and what to expect

We explain what to expect when having heart surgery, including details about your admission. We also explain the roles of the healthcare team looking after you.  

Hepatitis B vaccination for kidney patients

Information about the hepatitis B vaccination for people at increased risk of getting hepatitus B from their kidney condition.

Hernia repair

We treat hernias with keyhole or open surgery so they do not get bigger or more painful. This is usually day surgery using general anaesthetic. It's important you know how to prepare.

Hickman line

A Hickman® line is a long, thin and flexible plastic tube. It is a type of central line (tube put into a central blood vessel of the chest). We use the line to give you medicines or take blood samples.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)

A guide for living with HS and coping with the emotional and practical effects. It includes how to manage difficult thoughts and feelings.

High-dye strapping for feet

Strapping (also known as taping) has a number of uses. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments can be injured by overstretching. Strapping stops more overstretching by restricting movement and causing muscles to work differently. 

High-intensity focused ultrasound to treat prostate cancer

Using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to treat prostate cancer.

HIV tests in the emergency department and urgent care

If you need a blood test while you are in A&E then we'll look for HIV infection in your blood in line with NICE guidance.

Home introduction of nuts, for adults

If you have been assessed by the allergy team, this is a way of introducing 1 or more nuts into your diet in a gradual, and safe way. 

Homecare medicines service

Certain medicines prescribed by the hospital can be delivered to you. Find out more about registering for this service, delivery, storing medicines and going abroad.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is medicine used to treat menopausal symptoms. Find information on how HRT is taken, the side effects and the risks.

Hot flushes when having hormone therapy for prostate cancer

Hot flushes can happen if you have hormone deprivation therapy as a treatment for prostate cancer. Our advice will help with managing your symptoms.

How drinks affect your bladder and bowel

It is important to drink enough of the right fluids to help with problems such as cystitis, infections, incontinence and nocturia. 

How to self-inject intramuscular vitamin B12

Information about how to self-administer your vitamin b12 injections at home. 

Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) and your baby

Information for parents and carers whose baby is at increased risk of having low blood sugar including how we care for them and signs of hypoglycaemia.

Hysteroscopy - an internal examination of your womb

A hysteroscopy is a procedure to examine the lining and shape of your womb (uterus). It can help find the cause of problems such as heavy vaginal bleeding and irregular periods. Sometimes we can treat things like fibroids or polyps at the same time.

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Inducing labour

Why we induce labour and ways of inducing labour, including by softening your cervix using a pessary, gel or balloon catheter, or by breaking your waters or using a hormone IV drip.

Indwelling pleural catheter (IPC)

An indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) is a small, soft and flexible tube. We put the tube into your chest to remove fluid from around your lungs. This helps with breathlessness.

Inguinal hernia repair

We treat inguinal hernias in your groin with keyhole or open surgery so they do not get bigger or more painful. This is usually day surgery using general anaesthetic. It's important you know how to prepare.

Injecting the cancer medicine bortezomib yourself

A guide to injecting the cancer medicine bortezomib at home. This includes information about how the medicine works and tips for using it safely.

Injecting the cancer medicine cytarabine yourself

A guide to injecting the cancer medicine cytarabine at home. This includes information about how the medicine works and tips for using it safely.

Injecting the cancer medicine denosumab yourself

A guide to injecting the cancer medicine denosumab at home. This includes information about how the medicine works and tips for using it safely.

Injecting the cancer medicine trastuzumab yourself

A guide to injecting the cancer medicine trastuzumab at home. This includes information about how the medicine works and tips for using it safely.

InspECT registry

If you’re having electrochemotherapy your healthcare team will ask for your permission to store your data in the InspECT registry. The InspECT registry is a list of information about people who have electrochemotherapy. It helps researchers understand the short and long term effect of electrochemotherapy on cancer.

Internal eye shield for radiotherapy to the eyelid

Using an internal eye shield when having radiotherapy treatment, will protect your eyes from the radiation.

Iron treatment in inflammatory bowel disease

Taking iron supplements, as tablets or liquids, can increase your iron levels and treat iron deficiency anaemia. This can help people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Itchy bottom (pruritus ani)

The causes of pruritus ani, which is continual itching or irritation around the bottom (anus), and treatments for this condition.

IVF treatment

This guide will help you to understand the different stages of IVF treatment, including medicines, risks and side effects, egg collection, fertilisation and embryo transfer.

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Kidney and bladder ultrasound scan

This is a widely used diagnostic test to examine the kidneys, ureters and bladder, and sometimes the prostate too. A kidney and bladder ultrasound is also known as a urinary tract ultrasound.

Kidney biopsy in the interventional radiology department

A kidney biopsy is a procedure, where we remove a small sample of tissue from your kidney with a thin needle. The sample is then examined in detail under a microscope.

Kidney stone pain (renal colic)

Information for people who have been in the emergency department (A&E) for pain from kidney stones (renal colic).

Knee osteoarthritis education and management session

What to expect if you come to a knee osteoarthritis education and management session. This session gives you information on how to manage your condition and symptoms.

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Lamotrigine for facial pain

Lamotrigine is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

Leg amputation - Overview

Reasons why you might need a leg amputation such as diabetes, blood flow, pain, infection or removing a tumour. Information about what happens before, during and after surgery. 

Let's talk: advance care planning

Our guide to planning and sharing how you want to be cared for in the future or at the end of your life. It covers having a conversation, how to record your wishes, and how advance care planning can help you and your loved ones.

Li-Fraumeni syndrome genetic and predictive testing

Testing to see if you have a fault (mutation) in the gene TP53 which causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome and if it runs in your family. 

Lidocaine IV infusion to treat pain

Lidocaine infusions can help to control some long-term pains. They need to be administered in hospital, and are usually safe, but we cannot guarantee if they will work for you.

LINX system treatment for chronic reflux

This is a medical device for people with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It is a small flexible band of titanium beads with magnetic cores.  The beads temporarily separate when you swallow, allowing food and drink to pass into your stomach.

Lithotripsy treatment for kidney stones

Lithotripsy uses shock waves to treat kidney stones that can be found in your kidney or ureter.

Liver biopsy in the interventional radiology department

A liver biopsy is a medical test, where we remove a small sample of tissue from your liver. The sample is then examined in detail under a microscope.

Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited heart condition, usually caused by a faulty gene. It affects the way the electricity travels through the heart and can change the way the heart beats.

Loop diathermy after a colposcopy

A loop diathermy is a procedure to remove abnormal cells on your cervix.

Low back pain

How to manage low back pain and associated stress or anxiety using physiotherapy, exercises and relaxation.

Low-dose aspirin in pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia

How a daily low dose of aspirin can help if you are at greater risk of pre-eclampsia, a high-blood pressure condition that usually happens towards the end of pregnancy.

Lung biopsy in the interventional radiology department

A lung biopsy is a procedure, where we remove a small sample from your lung. We use CT or ultrasound guidance to find the area accurately. The sample is then examined in detail under a microscope at a laboratory.

Lutetium therapy for neuroendocrine tumours

Lutetium therapy is a treatment called a targeted radionuclide therapy for a group of rare cancers called neuroendocrine tumours. The treatment targets cancer cells and gives a high amount (dose) of radiation directly to the tumour.

LVA with axillary lymph node clearance

An LVA (lymphaticovenous anastomosis) is a procedure you might have at the same time as your axillary lymph node clearance.

Lynch syndrome genetic and predictive testing

Testing to see if you have Lynch syndrome and if it runs in your family. 

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MAG3 renogram scan

A MAG3 renogram scan checks the function of your kidney, ureters and bladder. It checks the drainage of pee (urine) from the kidneys to the bladder, to identify any obstruction or delayed drainage.

Managing your lower limb cast

If you have a fracture or had surgery to your lower limb, learn more about how to manage pain and do exercises.

Mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA)

A mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) is a dental device that you wear while you sleep. It can help to treat snoring and sleep apnoea.

Maternity and Neonatal Voices Partnership

Our Maternity and Neonatal Voices Partnership is a team of local parents and health professionals working together to improve our services and deliver equitable care, so that every pregnancy, birth, and postpartum experience is safe, supportive, and empowering.

Maternity information

Information, support and advice from Guy's and St Thomas' and other organisations, about pregnancy and after birth.

Medical termination of pregnancy over 18 weeks’ gestation

Making a decision to end a pregnancy can be difficult and emotional. This information explains more about the medical procedure for pregnancies over 18 weeks' gestation.

Medical termination of pregnancy up to 17 weeks and 6 days gestation

Making a decision to end a pregnancy can be difficult and emotional. This information explains more about the medical procedure for pregnancies up to 17 weeks and 6 days gestation.

Medicines and how to manage them

Information about the support available to manage the side effects of medicines. This can include reviewing your medicines with a GP, asking questions about new medicines and getting support from your local pharmacy.

Medicines questions you can ask

Questions about your medicines you can ask the doctor, nurse or pharmacist including how and when to take them, side effects and what they do.

Mepacrine medicine to treat lupus

Mepacrine is a medicine that can help various conditions that cause skin inflammation, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methotrexate for inflammatory bowel disease

Methotrexate is a medicine that helps to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a condition of the gut that's usually life-long.


Microsuction is one of the safest methods to clean the ear. The nurse, doctor or audiologist treating you looks at your ear using a microscope. This makes it easier for us to assess and treat. A suction device is used to clean the ear without using any water. 

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)

How MBSR can help you manage your long-term condition and symptoms.

MINIject surgery

The MINIject is a 5mm silicone implant designed specifically for patients who have open angle glaucoma. 

Mouth care during and after cancer treatment

How to avoid and treat mouth problems for people who are receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy and biological therapy drugs to treat cancer. 

Mouth, jaw, or face pain and other unpleasant sensations

Persistent facial pain can be distressing. This information gives advice about things you can do to help improve your own experience of living with pain.

MPI scan

An MPI (myocardial perfusion imaging) scan is used to look at how well your heart muscle is receiving blood. An MPI scan is done in the nuclear medicine department, using a gamma camera.


Common symptoms of mpox (previously known as monkeypox) and how to treat them.


How we manage the spread of MRSA in our hospitals, and how you can help.

Mycophenolate medicine for autoimmune hepatitis

Mycophenolate is a medicine that helps to treat autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver condition that's usually life-long. 

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Nail surgery

Information about having nail surgery for ingrown and painful toenails, including after care instructions. 

Nasal obturators (for speech)

DOACs thin your blood to treat atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. They can be used instead of warfarin but, as they are taken as a fixed dose, you do not need regular blood tests.

Needle phobia and overcoming your fear

How to use relaxation, applied tension technique and a fear ladder to help you overcome the fear of needles and injections.

Nephrostomy catheter to drain urine from the kidney

A nephrostomy catheter is a small tube that we can put through the skin into your kidney to drain urine (pee).

NHS services

NHS and public services for refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants.

Nissen fundoplication for severe acid reflux

A Nissen fundoplication is surgery to treat severe and ongoing acid reflux gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or GORD). You usually have keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery to make a new valve between your food pipe and stomach.

Nocturia - getting up at night to pee

If you often get up at night to pee, you may have Nocturia. Find out more about its causes and how it can be treated.

Nortriptyline for facial pain

Nortriptyline is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

Nystatin for early voice prosthesis failure due to candida

Instructions on how to use nystatin to treat candida infections for early voice prosthesis failure.

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Oesophageal dilatation or stent for swallowing problems

An oesophageal dilatation or oesophageal stent procedure is intended to treat swallowing problems if your food pipe becomes narrow or blocked.

Opioid pain management clinic

How our clinic can help with high-dose opioid medicines and management of long-term (chronic) pain.

Opioid patches

How to use opioid patches safely, including how to apply, change and dispose of them.

Oralvac Compact immunotherapy for allergies

Oralvac® Compact are drops that you put under your tongue to treat severe allergies. They are used if your current medicine does not control your symptoms well.

Otitis externa or swimmer's ear

Information about the causes, symptoms and treatment of otitis externa or swimmer's ear. This can be a painful condition of the outer ear caused by inflammation.

Oxcarbazepine for facial pain

Oxcarbazepine is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

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Pancreas after kidney transplant

A pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant is a treatment for patients who have a functioning kidney transplant and have insulin-dependent diabetes.

Pancreas transplant alone (PTA)

A pancreas transplant alone (PTA) is a treatment for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes who frequently get life-threatening low blood sugars. 

Pancreas transplantation recovery

Advice for looking after yourself and returning to normal activities after having a pancreas transplant.

Pancreatic cysts - intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Treatment for cysts in the pancreas, called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPNM) which could be cancerous and need to be removed or carefully monitored. 

Paracetamol poisoning treatment

Acetylcysteine treatment (using SNAP) for paracetamol poisoning and overdose.

Patency capsule before a VCE

A patency capsule is for people who might have some narrowing of their small bowel. It's a dummy capsule to make sure it's safe for you to swallow a video capsule.

Penile Doppler ultrasound scan

This is a widely used diagnostic test to examine and measure the blood flow into your penis which could be causing erectile dysfunction (ED). 

Percutaneous ablation for thyroid nodules

Percutaneous ablation is a procedure where we use an electric current to heat and destroy nodules (lumps) on your thyroid.

Perianal abscess surgery

You can have surgery to remove the infected tissue of a perianal abscess. This is a painful, swollen area near the opening of your bottom (anus).

Peripheral nerve injections to treat pain

Information about how injections of anaesthetics and steroids might help ease pain.

Personalised follow-up after thyroid cancer treatment

Information about the personalised follow-up (PFU) programme, which supports you after you have finished treatment for thyroid cancer.

Phenol injections to treat pain

Phenol can be used to treat chronic pain. It is used for pain that is difficult to control by conventional methods, such as painkillers.

Photochemical corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus

Photochemical corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with vitamin B2 and Ultraviolet (UV) light is a treatment used for keratoconus. 

Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin to treat CSCR

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin is used to treat central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).

Physiotherapy advice for wearing a sling

Physiotherapy advice and exercises while you are wearing a sling.

Physiotherapy for heart surgery

If you are having heart surgery, you should practice the breathing exercises beforehand. You will need to do them after your surgery. Breathing exercises help to avoid a chest infection.

PICC line (peripherally inserted central catheter)

A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line) is a long, thin and flexible tube that we put into a vein in your upper arm. We can then give you antibiotics, other medicines, fluids or liquid food directly into the vein, or take blood samples for testing.

Piles (haemorrhoids)

What causes piles (haemorrhoids), symptoms, treatment options and lifestyle changes.

Pilonidal sinus surgery

Information on treating a pilonidal sinus (a small hole under the skin between the cheeks of your bottom) with surgery.

Planned (elective) caesarean birth

A guide to having a planned (elective) caesarean birth or C-section. This is surgery to deliver a baby through a cut made in your tummy and womb.

Pleural biopsy

A pleural biopsy is a procedure that takes a sample of the pleura, using a special needle. Read more about having a pleural biopsy. 

Pleurodesis using a chest drain

Pleurodesis seals the space between your lungs and chest wall to stop fluid collecting. Read more about having pleurodesis. 

POEM surgery for achalasia (difficulty swallowing)

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is surgery for a condition called achalasia. This is when the muscles in your food pipe do not work properly. The surgery can help your symptoms and make swallowing easier.

Polyhydramnios (increased fluid around your baby)

How we care for you in pregnancy if your ultrasound scan shows you have polyhydramnios, a condition where the water around your baby (called amniotic fluid) is increased during pregnancy.

PolyMem® - guidelines on how to use

A PolyMem® dressing helps to treat a moist area on your skin, due to your radiotherapy treatment. Follow these instructions on how to use the dressing and what to look for in case of an infection. 

Port-a-Cath insertion

A Port-a-Cath is small medical device that is put under the skin. It is used to give medicines to patients whose veins are weak or very narrow, or for those on long-term treatment or therapy.

Postnatal hypertension

Postnatal hypertension is high blood pressure during or shortly after pregnancy. If you have hypertension or are at risk of getting it, we offer specialist care to look after you and your baby during pregnancy.

Postural hypotension (low blood pressure when you stand up)

Information on postural hypotension (a drop in blood pressure when you stand up after lying or sitting down). This covers the symptoms and possible causes of the condition, and how it is diagnosed and treated.

Potassium permanganate soaks for skin conditions or ulcers

Potassium permanganate is a chemical tablet that is dissolved and diluted in water to make a soak for skin conditions that blister or weep.

Precautions after hip surgery

This information explains what you need to do following hip surgery, and which movements to avoid. 

Predictive testing for an inherited degenerative condition

Information about predictive testing for an inherited degenerative condition. Includes questions you may want to think about, and how the results may affect you. 

Predictive testing for von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Testing to see if you have a fault (mutation) in the gene VHL which causes von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and if it runs in your family. 

Pregabalin for facial pain

Pregabalin is a medicine that can be used for treating chronic (long-term) pain in the face.

Preventing falls in hospital

Information on how you can reduce the chance of a slip, trip or fall when you are in hospital.

Priapism in sickle cell disease

Priapism is an unwanted erection of the penis that lasts longer than 30 minutes. It is not caused by sexual desire, arousal, or stimulation. It can often be painful and distressing.

Prostate cancer surgery follow-up

What to expect after prostate cancer surgery, including clinic appointments, blood tests, and support from prostate cancer clinical nurse specialists. 

Prostate embolisation for an enlarged prostate

Prostate embolisation is a procedure to treat a condition called benign prostate enlargement. This is when the small prostate gland near a man's bladder becomes bigger than usual.

Protein in your diet for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) surgery

How to make sure that you have enough protein in your diet before and after your upper gastrointestinal surgery. This is important for wound healing, strength and your recovery.


Information about a pterygium, which is a raised, triangular or wedge-shaped, benign (not cancer) growth of conjunctiva tissue. 

Ptosis surgery

Information about ptosis surgery, which is a treatment that can be used to lift one, or both of your upper eyelids. 

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Quantitative sensory testing

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a non-invasive test that examines how nerve endings work, helping to diagnose some pain conditions, plan treatment, and monitor recovery. 

Questionnaires to monitor your progress

We ask you to complete questionnaires (sometimes called PROMs) so that we can improve our service and your care. These tell us how you're feeling before, during and after your treatment.

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Radiotherapy after surgery for keloid

If you have had surgery to remove a keloid scar, having radiotherapy may prevent it from coming back.

Radiotherapy for palmar fibromatosis (Dupuytren’s contracture)

Palmar fibromatosis, also known as Dupuytren’s contracture, is when 1 or more fingers bend in towards your palm. It can be treated with radiotherapy. 

Radiotherapy for plantar fibromatosis (Ledderhose disease)

Plantar fibromatosis, also known as Ledderhose disease, is when lumps (nodules) form on the feet or toes. Radiotherapy can be used to treat plantar fibromatosis.

Radiotherapy for skin cancer

Radiotherapy uses high energy X-rays to treat skin cancer. It damages cells in the treatment area, killing the cancer cells. 

Radiotherapy for skin lymphomas

This information is about radiotherapy for skin (cutaneous) lymphomas, including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (which includes Sézary syndrome & mycosis fungoides).

Raynaud's syndrome and scleroderma

Raynaud’s syndrome, which is a characterised by poor circulation to the fingers, toes and ears, particularly in cold weather.

Recovering from cochlear implant surgery

What you can expect after cochlear implant surgery.

Recovering from vocal cord surgery

Guidance on recovering from vocal cord surgery. This covers resting your voice for 3 days, how to avoid irritating your vocal cords and getting support from a speech and language therapist.

Red cell volume test

A red cell volume test measures the amount of red cells and plasma that your blood contains. The test helps us to diagnose true polycythemia (sometimes called erythrocytosis). A red cell volume test is the main test used to diagnose polycythaemia vera (PV).

Redressing your foot after surgery

This information explains how to redress your foot after having nail surgery or a small procedure on your foot. It also includes information on what to expect after surgery, and when you can return to work and normal activities. 

Renal pelvic dilatation in your developing baby

What happens during your pregnancy, and after your baby is born, when fetal renal pelvic dilation (RPD) of the kidneys is found in your baby at the 20-week ultrasound scan.


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SABR to the abdomen

Radiotherapy uses radiation (high energy X-rays) delivered to a specific area to treat cancer and other conditions. SABR uses smaller beams and more of them, and they are given from different directions so they can be more focused on the area that needs treatment. This means that less surrounding tissue is affected.

Sacroiliac joint injections to treat pain

Having sacroiliac joint injections might be helpful to treat your joint pain. 

Sclerotherapy for vascular malformations

Sclerotherapy is a procedure to treat various forms of growths of the blood vessels. These growths are called vascular malformations and they are not cancer.

Screening for Down's syndrome, Edwards' syndrome and Patau's syndrome

During pregnancy, you can have a blood test at your dating scan around 10 to 14 weeks of pregnancy that screens for conditions. This will tell you if your chance of having Down's syndrome, Edwards' syndrome or Patau's syndrome is higher or lower.

Sedation in the emergency department

Guidance after having sedation medicines to help you relax.

SeHCAT study

A SeHCAT scan looks at how well your body absorbs bile salts to digest fats and get rid of toxins in the body. You might have this test if you have recurring diarrhoea or bile acid malabsorption (BAM).

Self or carer administration of medicines in hospital

You or your carer can be responsible for administering your own medicines while you stay in hospital, if we agree that this is safe. 

Sickle cell disease and stroke

Information about the increased risk of a stroke for people with sickle cell disease, including symptoms, and what to do if you have a stroke. 

Simple blood transfusion

Information about a simple blood transfusion (also known as a 'top-up'), which is a treatment used for sickle cell disease. 

Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant

A simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant is a treatment for patients with kidney failure and insulin-dependent diabetes. The kidney and pancreas are removed from a person who has died and given to the person who needs it. 

Sotrovimab for coronavirus

Sotrovimab medicine for treating coronavirus (COVID-19), including side effects and restrictions.

Spinal cord stimulation

Spinal cord stimulation might reduce the intensity of certain types of pain. It cannot resolve the pain completely, and is not a cure. It works best when combined with other therapies to holistically treat the effects pain has on your life. 

Stereotactic radiotherapy to the brain

Information about preparing and the scans you will need before your SRT treatment. We use these results to prepare your personalised treatment plan. 


Instructions to help your wound heal if Steri-Strips have been used.

Sterilisation at the time of caesarean section

Information to help you make a decision about sterilisation at the time caesarean section (tubal ligation) including success rates, risks and alternatives such as long-term contraception and vasectomy.

Steroids for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)

Steroids is a medicine that helps to treat autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver condition that's usually life-long. 


How to look after stitches (sutures).

Sub-conjunctival haemorrhage

Information about bleeding in your eye, known as a sub-conjunctival haemorrhage. 

Sucralfate enema to treat bleeding from the bowel

Having radiotherapy around your bottom to treat cancer can cause broken blood vessels and bleeding. Taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant medicines can make it worse. A sucralfate enema helps to treat this. 

Surgery at our hospitals

Information about the stages of having surgery at our hospitals. They include being referred to us, having an outpatient appointment, deciding to have surgery, keeping well while you wait, having a pre-operative assessment, going to hospital and recovering.

Surgical wounds and preventing infections

You can prevent surgical wound infection by being aware of the signs, looking after your wound and keeping your hands clean.

Surveillance colonoscopy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Regular screening by having a colonoscopy is important for preventing bowel cancer in people who have had IBD for a long time.

Swallowing or breathing in an object during dental treatment

Information about possible treatment if you swallow or inhale something during a dental appointment.

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Testicular torsion surgery

Scrotal exploration surgery is emergency treatment for when the testicle is twisted and cuts of the blood supply, usually diagnosed by sudden, severe testicle pain.

Testosterone for low sex drive in the menopause

You can have testosterone treatment for low sex drive in the menopause at the same time as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). It can be particularly helpful for people who had an early menopause.

Thermal or cryoablation to treat a tumour

Thermal or cryoablation is a procedure to treat a tumour without surgery by burning or freezing the tumour cells.

Thoracocentesis (pleural aspiration or pleural tap)

Thoracocentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between your lungs and chest wall (pleural space). Find out more about having this procedure. 

Thrombolysis for arterial vascular conditions

Thrombolysis is a procedure to break up blood clots causing a blockage in an artery.

Thyroid scan

A thyroid scan checks the function of the thyroid gland. It can help find out if your thyroid is working normally, or is overactive or underactive. Thyroid scans are done in the nuclear medicine department, using a gamma camera.

Thyroid shield

This information explains why it is not necessary to wear a thyroid shield when having a breast screening mammogram.

Tilt table test

We do a tilt table test to find why you might feel dizzy or light-headed, or lose consciousness. We check if your symptoms are connected to changes in your heart beat or blood pressure. The test might include a neck massage called a carotid sinus massage.

Total contact casting (TCC)

Total contact cast (TCC) is a treatment for foot conditions, such as a diabetic foot ulcer or Charcot foot. The cast reduces pressure on your foot. Find out more about having a total contact cast, any risks, what to expect if you have one and when you can return to work and daily activities. 

Total skin electron beam therapy

Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a specialised type of radiotherapy that treats your skin. It is used to treat lymphomas that affect many areas of your skin. 

Transnasal endoscopy

A transnasal endoscopy (TNE) can be used to look at the foodpipe (oesophagus), stomach and small intestine. A thin flexible tube called an endoscope is passed through your nose and down the back of your throat.

Transoral robotic surgery

Using trans oral robotic system (TORS) for throat surgery helps patients recover quicker and better. 

Transrectal ultrasound scan

This is a widely used diagnostic test to examine the prostate gland which lies at the front of your bottom (rectum). 

Transvaginal ultrasound scan

This is a widely used diagnostic test to examine the pelvic organs such as uterus and ovaries.

Trigger point injections to treat pain

Trigger point injections might be able to help with muscle pain, and are sometimes used alongside physiotherapy. They often include a small amount of steroid.

Tumour testing for prostate cancer patients

Genetic testing to for non-inherited (somatic) prostate cancer, to help us plan your treatment.

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Ultrasound-guided core biopsy of the breast

During an ultrasound-guided core biopsy of the breast, we remove a small sample of breast tissue for testing. Information about the benefits and risks of the procedure, and what to expect.

Unlicensed medicines

Unlicensed medicines are not officially approved for your condition, but your doctor can prescribe them if they feel that this is safe. 

Urgent referral to hospital

An urgent referral means your symptoms need further investigation and we aim to see you within 2 weeks. There are many common conditions that these symptoms could be linked to, and having an urgent referral does not necessarily mean that you have cancer.

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Varicocele embolisation for enlarged veins in the testicles

A varicocele embolisation is non-surgical, X-ray guided treatment for a varicocele. This is a group of enlarged blood vessels (veins) in the pouch (scrotum) around the testicle.

Varicose veins

Varicose veins are superficial veins bulging under the skin. They can be painful but there are some treatment options to improve your symptoms.


A verruca (plantar wart) is a wart on the foot caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). They commonly occur on the soles of the feet and toes. 

Video capsule endoscopy of the large bowel

A video capsule endoscopy (VCE) uses a light and tiny camera on the end to examine your large bowel.

Video capsule endoscopy of the small bowel

A video capsule endoscopy (VCE) uses a light and tiny camera on the end to examine your small bowel.

Video capsule endoscopy with CapsoCam®

A video capsule endoscopy (VCE) uses a light and tiny camera on the end to examine your large bowel. In some cases we use a CapsoCam to view the images.

Vital 5 ways to stay healthy

Information about smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI), mental health and blood pressure to stay healthy.


A vitrectomy is a type of eye surgery used to repair retinal detachment. 

VQ lung scan

A VQ (lung) scan looks at the air supply  and blood supply to your lungs. It helps us to diagnose lung conditions. It is most commonly used to detect the presence of blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism, PE).

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Wisdom teeth

Removing wisdom teeth to treat infection, tooth decay, gum disease and cysts.

Wrist bone (scaphoid) injury

Managing a suspected scaphoid (wrist bone) injury if we have seen you in the emergency department and you are having an MRI scan.

Wrist sprains or strains

Information if we have treated you in the emergency department for a sprained or strained wrist.

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Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

XP is a rare, lifelong genetic (inherited) condition. It means that your body cannot repair skin damage caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight.

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